Types of Operating Systems
■ Single User Operating System: It is a type of OS which allows only one user at a time. The most popular single user OS are MS DOS(Microsoft Disk Operating System) and Windows 95.
■ Multitasking or Time-sharing Operating System: It is a type of OS which allows multiple software processes to run at the same time. Unix, Windows 2000, Windows Vista, Windows XP, Windows NT, are all examples of multitasking OS.
■ Multi-user Operating System: It allows for multiple users to use the same computer at the same time. For example, Linux, Windows 2000, Windows Vista, Windows XP, Windows NT, support multiuser performance.
■ Multiprocessing Operating System: It is an OS capable of supporting and utilizing more than one computer processor. For instance, Linux, Unix, Windows 2000, Windows Vista, Windows XP, etc. all perform multiprocessing activities.
■ Multithreading Operating System: It allows different parts of a software program to run at the same time. For example, Linux, Unix, Windows 2000, etc.
■ Distributed Operating System: Distributed means that the system stores and processes data on multiple locations. Thus, in a Distributed OS, users can the access remote resources in the same way as the local ones. These remote resources can be hardware as well as the software. This helps in resource sharing, computation speedup, reliability as well as better communication.
■ Real Time Operating System: In this OS, response time is already fixed. This means that the time to display the results after processing has been fixed by the processor or CPU. Therefore, the places which require higher and timely response use these systems.
Reservation systems and manufacturing industries use this type of operating system.
Commonly used operating systems
■ Microsoft Windows Desktop OS: Windows is the most used OS on Desktops and Laptops, with ~76.56% market share.
In 1985, Microsoft released the first version of Windows. This was simply a GUI offered as an extension of Microsoft’s existing disk operating system, also known as MS-DOS.
■ Linux: It is an open source software, which means anyone can download it from the internet. Also, anyone can make further changes to it and use it for free.
■ Mac OS: In 2001, Apple Inc. released the macOS operating system. It is the second most widely used desktop OS, after Microsoft Windows, with a ~17.1% market share.
■ Chrome OS: Chrome OS is a Gentoo Linux–based operating system designed by Google. It is derived from the free software Chromium OS. It thus uses the Google Chrome web browser as its principal user interface. In June 2011, Google released Chrome OS and it currently has a market share of ~1.72% .
■ Google Android: Google Android OS is Google’s Linux-based open source operating system for mobile devices, released in September 2008. At present, the world’s most widely used smartphone platform is Android with ~72.48% market share.
■ IOS: In June 2007, Apple Inc. also developed the iOS mobile operating System. The company uses it exclusively for its hardware. Hence, it is the operating system that powers many of the company’s mobile devices.